• The earliest processing of cereal grains probably involved parching or dry roasting of collected grain seeds. Flavour, texture, and digestibility were later improved by cooking whole or broken grains with water, forming gruel or porridge. It was a short step to the baking of a layer of viscous gruel on a hot stone, producing primitive flat bread. More sophisticated versions of flat bread include the Mexican tortilla, made of processed corn, and the chapati of India, usually made of wheatAt that time improvements in baking technology began to accelerate rapidly, owing to the higher level of technology generally. Ingredients of greater purity and improved functional qualities were developed, along with equipment reducing the need for individual skill and eliminating hand manipulation of bread doughs.
  • Baking techniques improved with the development of an enclosed baking utensil and then of ovens, making possible thicker baked cakes or loaves. The phenomenon of fermentation, with the resultant lightening of the loaf structure and development of appealing flavours, was probably first observed when doughs or gruels, held for several hours before baking, exhibited spoilage caused by yeasts. Some of the effects of the microbiologically induced changes were regarded as desirable, and a gradual acquisition of control over the process led to traditional methods for making leavened bread loavesEarly baked products were made of mixed seeds with a predominance of barley, but wheat flour, because of its superior response to fermentation, eventually became the preferred cereal among the various cultural groups sufficiently advanced in culinary techniques to make leavened bread.

Rusk Toast




Bakery & Sweets

Muffin & Cakes