Geography of India

Off By RetailMarketing

India is situated north of the equator between 8°4′ north to 37°6′ north latitude and 68°7′ east to 97°25′ east longitude.[2] It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[3][4][5] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4,671 mi).[1]

On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean—in particular, by the Arabian Sea on the west, the Lakshadweep Sea to the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the east, and the Indian Ocean proper to the south. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate India from Sri Lanka to its immediate southeast, and the Maldives are some 125 kilometres (78 mi) to the south of India’s Lakshadweep Islands across the Eight Degree Channel. India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands, some 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) southeast of the mainland, share maritime borders with MyanmarThailand and IndonesiaKanyakumari at 8°4′41″N and 77°55′230″E is the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland, while the southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island. The northernmost point which is under Indian administration is Indira Col, Siachen Glacier.[6] India’s territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline.[7] India has the 18th largest Exclusive Economic Zone of 2,305,143 km2 (890,021 sq mi).

The northern frontiers of India are defined largely by the Himalayan mountain range, where the country borders ChinaBhutan, and Nepal. Its western border with Pakistan lies in the Karakoram rangePunjab Plains, the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch salt marshes. In the far northeast, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous regions, separate India from Burma. On the east, its border with Bangladesh is largely defined by the Khasi Hills and Mizo Hills, and the watershed region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[clarification needed]

The Ganges is the longest river originating in India. The GangesBrahmaputra system occupies most of northern, central, and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. Kangchenjunga, in the Indian state of Sikkim, is the highest point in India at 8,586 m (28,169 ft) and the world’s third highest peak. The climate across India ranges from equatorial in the far south, to alpine and tundra in the upper regions of the Himalayas. Geologically, India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern part of the Indo-Australian Plate.

Political geography

India is divided into 28 States (further subdivided into districts) and 8 union territories including the National capital territory (i.e., Delhi). India’s borders run a total length of 15,200 km (9,400 mi).[10][1]

Its borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh were delineated according to the Radcliffe Line, which was created in 1947 during Partition of India. Its western border with Pakistan extends up to 3,323 km (2,065 mi), dividing the Punjab region and running along the boundaries of the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch.[1] This border runs along the Indian states of Jammu and KashmirRajasthanGujarat, and Punjab.[11] Both nations delineated a Line of Control (LoC) to serve as the informal boundary between the Indian and Pakistan-administered areas of Jammu and Kashmir. India claims the whole state of Jammu and Kashmir, which includes Pakistan-administered Kashmir and China-administered Aksai Chin, which, according to India are illegally occupied areas.[1]

India’s border with Bangladesh runs 4,096.70 km (2,545.57 mi).[1] West BengalAssamMeghalayaTripura and Mizoram are the states which share the border with Bangladesh.[12] Before 2015, there were 92 enclaves of Bangladesh on Indian soil and 106 enclaves of India were on Bangladeshi soil.[13] These enclaves were eventually exchanged in order to simplify the border.[14] After the exchange, India lost roughly 40 km2 (10,000 acres) to Bangladesh.[15]

The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the effective border between India and the People’s Republic of China. It traverses 4,057 km along the Indian states of Jammu and KashmirUttarakhandHimachal PradeshSikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.[16] The border with Burma (Myanmar) extends up to 1,643 km (1,021 mi) along the southern borders of India‘s northeastern states viz. Arunachal PradeshNagalandManipur and Mizoram.[17] Located amidst the Himalayan range, India’s border with Bhutan runs 699 km (434 mi).[1] SikkimWest BengalAssam and Arunachal Pradesh are the states which share the border with Bhutan.[18] The border with Nepal runs 1,751 km (1,088 mi) along the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India.[1] UttarakhandUttar PradeshBiharWest Bengal and Sikkim are the states which share the border with Nepal.[19] The Siliguri Corridor, narrowed sharply by the borders of Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh, connects peninsular India with the northeastern states.