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Chhattisgarh (/ˌætɪzˈɡɑːr/;[6] Hindi Chattīsgaṛh[ˈtʃʰət̪ːiːsgəɽʱ]transl. ’Thirty-Six Forts’) is a state located in the region of Central India. Formerly part of Madhya Pradesh, it was granted statehood on November 1, 2000. It is the 9th-largest state in India, with an area of 135,192 km2 (52,198 sq mi). As of 2020, it has a population of roughly 29.4 million, making it the 17th most populated state in the country.[7]

The state was formed by the partition of ten Chhattisgarhi and six Gondi-speaking districts in the southeast of Madhya Pradesh.[8][9] Its capital city is Raipur. It borders 7 states – Uttar Pradesh to the north, Madhya Pradesh to the northwest, Maharashtra to the southwest, Jharkhand to the northeast, Odisha to the east, and Telangana and Andhra to the south.[10] Currently, it comprises 28 districts.

Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.[11] Its Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) is ₹3.63 lakh crore (US$51 billion), with a per capita GSDP of ₹102,762 (US$1,400).[12] A resource-rich state, Chhattisgarh provides electricity, coal, and steel to the rest of the nation.[13]

In 2020, it again won the title of cleanest state with more than 100 Urban Local Bodies, as announced by Minister for Housing and Urban Affairs Hardeep Singh Puri following the ‘Swachh Survekshan 2020’.[14]



Chhattisgarh state consists of 5 divisions with 28 districts (one new district named “Gaurela-Pendra-Marwahi” created with effect from 10 February 2020).


Bastar DivisionDurg DivisionRaipur DivisionBilaspur DivisionSurguja Division


Districts of Chhattisgarh state in 2020

Chhattisgarh comprises 28 districts. The following are the list of the districts of Chhattisgarh State with major cities:

DistrictHeadquarterLargest CityOther Major Cities
RaipurRaipurRaipurKharora, Tilda
BilaspurBilaspurBilaspurKota(Kargi Road), Pendra Road, Bilha
DurgDurgBhilaiCharoda, Kumhari, Patan
KorbaKorbaKorbaKatghora, Pali
RaigarhRaigarhRaigarhKharsia, Gharghora, Sarangagarh, lailunga
RajnandgaonRajnandgaonRajnandgaonDongargarh, Dongargaon
JashpurJashpur NagarJashpur NagarKunkuri, Patthalgaon, Tapkara
Janjgir–ChampaJanjgirJanjgir-Naila/ ChampaSaktiAkaltaraShivrinarayan
MungeliMungeliMungeliLormi, Takhatpur
KabirdhamKawardhaKawardhaPandariya, Pandatarai
Baloda Bazar-BhataparaBaloda BazarBhataparaSimga, Palari, Lawan, Kasdol, Bilaigarh
GariabandGariabandGariabandRajim, Deobhog
MahasamundMahasamundMahasamundSaraipali, Bagbahra

Major cities[edit]


Economy of Chhattisgarh
GDP₹383,098 crore (US$54 billion) (2021–22 est.)[37]
GDP rank17th
GDP growth
5% (2020–21)[37]
GDP per capita
₹104,943 (US$1,500) (2020–21)[38]
GDP by sector
Agriculture 26%
Industry 38%
Services 36% (2020–21)[37]
Public finances
28.3% of GSDP (2021–22 est.)[37]
₹−17,461 crore (US$−2.4 billion) (4.56% of GSDP) (2021–22 est.)[37]
Revenues₹79,645 crore (US$11 billion) (2021–22 est.)[37]
Expenses₹102,483 crore (US$14 billion) (2021–22 est.)[37]
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Chhattisgarh’s nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) is estimated at ₹3.26 lakh crore (US$46 billion) in 2018–19, the 17th largest state economy in India. The economy of Chhattisgarh recorded a growth rate of 6.7% in 2017–18.[37] Chhattisgarh’s success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production.

Tea Production[edit]

Chhattisgarh State is ranked as the 17th-largest tea-producing state in India. The districts of Jashpur and Surguja are favorable tea production areas. In Jashpur district, the first tea plantation, Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was established under the direction of Pujya Pad Gurupad. Tea production started after two years at the Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was established in Sogara Ashram and the unit name set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The forestry department has also started a tea plantation motivated by the Sogara Ashram. In Surguja district, a tea nursery is being developed by the Margdarshan Sansthan Agriculture College in Ambikapur, Surguja.


Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is 4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 million hectares.[39] Horticulture and animal husbandry also engage a major share of the total population of the state.[40] About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry.

The majority of the farmers are still practicing the traditional methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural development plans and to improve productivity.[41]

Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now.

Agricultural products[edit]

The main crops are rice, maize,[42] kodo-kutki and other small millets and pulses (tuar[43] and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans[44] and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s, most of Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where nearly 80% of a state’s area is covered only by one crop, immediate attention to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh is also called the “rice bowl of central India”.[39]