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Bihar (/bɪˈhɑːr/Hindi pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr] (About this soundlisten)) is a state in eastern India. It is the third-largest state by population and twelfth-largest by territory, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). It is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east.[11] Three main cultural regions converge in the state: MagadhMithila, and Bhojpur.[12] Bihar is also the world’s third-most populous subnational entity.

On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand.[13] Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.[14] Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.[15] The official languages are Hindi and Urdu, although other languages are common, including MaithiliMagahiBhojpuri and other Bihari languages.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture.[16] From Magadha arose India’s first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions: Buddhism.[17] Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.[18] Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom.[19][20]

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development.[21] Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the freight equalisation policy,[22][23] its apathy towards Bihar,[24] lack of Bihari sub-nationalism,[25] and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company.[23] The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state.[26] Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure,[27] better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.[28]



Gross State Domestic Product 
Langra mango from a farm in ShivnarayanpurBhagalpur, Bihar
Bihar accounts for 71% of India’s annual litchi production.[105]

Bihar’s gross state domestic product (GSDP) for fiscal year (FY) 2013–14 was around 3,683.37 billion. By sectors, its composition is 22% agriculture, 5% industry and 73% services.[citation needed] Bihar has the fastest-growing state economy in terms of GSDP, with a growth rate of 17.06% in FY 2014–15.[106] The economy of Bihar was projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.4% during 2012–2017 (the 12th Five-Year Plan). Bihar has experienced strong growth in per capita net state domestic product (NSDP). At current prices, per capita NSDP of the state grew at a CAGR of 12.91% from 2004 to 2005 to 2014–15.[107] Bihar’s per capita income went up by 40.6% in FY 2014–15.[108] The state’s debt was estimated at 77% of GDP by 2007.[109]


Among the states of India, Bihar is the fourth-largest producer of vegetables and the eighth-largest producer of fruits. About 80% of the state’s population is employed in agriculture, which is above the national average.[107] The main agricultural products are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady’s finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and sunflower. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions favour agriculture, this can be hampered by floods and soil erosion.[110] The southern parts of the state endure annual droughts, which affect crops such as paddy.[111]


HajipurDalmianagar and Barauni are the major industrial cities in Bihar[112] The capital city, Patna, is one of the better-off cities in India when measured by per capita income.[relevant?][113]^

The Finance Ministry has sought to create investment opportunities for big industrial houses like Reliance Industries. Further developments have taken place in the growth of small industries, improvements in IT infrastructure, a software park in Patna, Darbhanga, Bhagalpur,[114] and the completion of the expressway from the Purvanchal border through Bihar to Jharkhand. In August 2008, a Patna-registered company called the Security and Intelligence Services[115] took over the Australian guard and mobile patrol services business of American conglomerate, United Technologies Corporation (UTC). SIS is registered and taxed in Bihar.[116][relevant?]

Prior to prohibition, Bihar emerged as a brewery hub with numerous production units.[117] In August 2018, United Breweries Limited announced it would begin production of non-alcoholic beer at its previously defunct brewery in Bihar.[118][119]

Income distribution

In terms of income, the districts of PatnaMunger, and Begusarai placed highest among the 38 districts in the state, recording the highest per capita gross district domestic product of ₹31,441, ₹10,087 and ₹9,312, respectively, in FY 2004–05.[113]

List of districts of Bihar

Bihar, a state of India, currently has 38 administrative districts Districts of Bihar, 101 subdivisions (अनुमंडल) and 534 CD blocks.

A district of an Indian state is an administrative geographical unit, headed by a district magistrate or a deputy commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service. The district magistrate or the deputy commissioner is assisted by a number of officials belonging to different wings of the administrative services of the state.

superintendent of police, an officer belonging to Indian Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues.

3 to 6 districts are comprised to form a division (प्रमंडल). Each district is divided into sub-divisions (अनुमंडल), which are further sub-divided into CD blocks (प्रखण्ड).



DivisionHeadquartersDistrictsDistrict map of Bihar
PatnaPatnaBhojpurBuxarKaimurPatnaRohtasNalandaDivisions of Bihar.svg
SaranChapraSaranSiwan , Gopalganj
TirhutMuzaffarpurEast ChamparanMuzaffarpurSheoharSitamarhiVaishaliWest Champaran

Detailed List[edit]

  • #
CodeDistrictHeadquartersSub-Division(Taluka)Population (2011)Area (km²)Density (/km²)
  • Araria
  • Jokihat
  • Kursakanta
  • Raniganj
  • Sikti
  • Palasi
  • Forbesganj
  • Narpatganj
  • Bhargama
Bihar district location map Araria.svg
  • Arwal
  • Kaler
  • Karpi
  • Kurtha
  • Sonbhadra Banshi Suryapur
Bihar district location map Arwal.svg
  • Aurangabad
  • Barun
  • Navinagar
  • Kutumba
  • Madanpur
  • Deo
  • Rafiganj
  • Obra
  • Daudnagar
  • Goh
  • Haspura
Bihar district location map Aurangabad.svg
  • Amarpur
  • Banka
  • Barahat
  • Belhar
  • Bounsi
  • Chandan
  • Dhoraiya
  • Fullidumar
  • Katoriya
  • Rajoun
  • Sambhuganj
Bihar district location map Banka.svg
  • Begusarai
  • Barauni
  • Teghra
  • Matihani
  • Bachhwara
  • Mansurchak
  • Naokothi
  • Cheriabariyarpur
  • Sahebpur Kamal
  • Bakhari
  • Birpur
  • Dandari
  • Garhpura
  • Balia
  • Chhorahi
  • Khodawandpur
  • Bhagwanpur
  • Samho Akha Kurha
Bihar district location map Begusarai.svg
  • Goradih
  • Jagdishpur
  • Nathnagar
  • Sabour
  • Shahkund
  • Sultanganj
  • Kahalgaon
  • Pirpainty
  • Sanhaula
  • Bihpur
  • Gopalpur
  • Ismailpur
  • Kharik
  • Narayanpur
  • Naugachhiya
  • Rangrachowk
Bihar district location map Bhagalpur.svg
Bihar district location map Bhojpur.svg
Bihar district location map Buxar.svg
  • Darbhanga Sadar
  • Benipur
  • Baheri
  • Ali Nagar
  • Hanuman Nagar
  • Bahadurpur
  • Hayaghat
  • Keoti
  • Singhwara
  • Jale
  • Manigachhi
  • Tardih
  • Biraul
  • Ghanshyampur
  • Kusheshwar Asthan
  • Kusheshwar Asthan East
  • Kiratpur
  • Gaura Bauram
Bihar district location map Darbhanga.svg
10ECEast ChamparanMotihari5,099,3713,969991
Bihar district location map East Champaran.svg
Bihar district location map Gaya.svg
Bihar district location map Gopalganj.svg
Bihar district location map Jamui.svg
Bihar district location map Jehanabad.svg
Bihar district location map Khagaria.svg
Bihar district location map Kishanganj.svg
Bihar district location map Kaimur.svg
Bihar district location map Katihar.svg
Bihar district location map Lakhisarai.svg
Bihar district location map Madhubani.svg
Bihar district location map Munger.svg
Bihar district location map Madhepura.svg
Bihar district location map Muzaffarpur.svg
24NLNalandaBihar Sharif2,877,6532,3541,006
Bihar district location map Nalanda.svg
Bihar district location map Nawada.svg
  • Patna Sadar
  • Sampatchak
  • Phulwarisarif
  • Fatwah
  • Daniyawan
  • Khusrupur
  • Athmal gola
  • Mokama
  • Belchhi
  • Ghoswari
  • Pandarak
  • Bakhtiyarpur
  • Barh
  • Masaurhi
  • Punpun
  • Dhanarua
  • Danapur
  • Maner
  • Bihta
  • Naubatpur
  • Paliganj
  • Dulhinbazar
  • Bikram
Bihar district location map Patna.svg
Bihar district location map Purnia.svg
Bihar district location map Rohtas.svg
Bihar district location map Saharsa.svg
  • Tajpur
  • Morwa
  • Khanpur
  • Sarairanjan
  • Pusa
  • Warishnagar
  • Kalyanpur
  • Rosera
  • Hasanpur
  • Bithan
  • Shivajinagar
  • Singhiya
  • Bibhutipur
  • Dalsingsarai
  • Ujiyarpur
  • Vidyapatinagar
  • Patori
  • Mohanpur
  • Mohiuddin Nagar
Bihar district location map Samastipur.svg
Bihar district location map Sheohar.svg
Bihar district location map Sheikhpura.svg
Bihar district location map Saran.svg
34STSitamarhiDumra, Sitamarhi3,423,5742,1991,214
Bihar district location map Sitamarhi.svg
Bihar district location map Supaul.svg
Bihar district location map Siwan.svg
Bihar district location map Vaishali.svg
38WCWest ChamparanBettiah3,935,0425,229582
Bihar district location map West Champaran.svg

See Also