Automotive industry in India

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The automotive industry in India is the sixth-largest in the world.


A pre-Independence car showroom in Secunderabad, showing Fiat Topolino and Fiat 1100

Indian Royalty were one of the largest buyers of luxury cars during pre-Independence British India.

Kolkata street traffic in 1945

In 1897, the first car ran on an Indian road. Through the 1930s, cars were imports only, and in small numbers.

An embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Hindustan Motors was launched in 1942, long-time competitor Premier in 1944, building ChryslerDodge, and Fiat products respectively.[2] Mahindra & Mahindra was established by two brothers in 1945, and began assembly of Jeep CJ-3A utility vehicles. Following independence in 1947, the Government of India and the private sector launched efforts to create an automotive-component manufacturing industry to supply to the automobile industry. In 1953, an import substitution programme was launched, and the import of fully built-up cars began to be restricted.[2]


The 1949 Hindustan 10 built by Hindustan Motors under license from Morris Motors, UK

Mine Protected Vehicle manufactured at the Vehicle Factory Jabalpur of OFB

The Hindustan Ambassador dominated India’s automotive market from the 1960s until the mid-1980s and was manufactured till 2014.

Fiat 1100D, built under license by Premier Automobiles later re-christened ‘Premier Padmini’ was the Ambassador’s only true competitor.

The 1952 Tariff Commission[edit]

In 1952, the government appointed the first Tariff Commission, one of whose purposes was to come out with a feasibility plan for the indigenization of the Indian automobile industry. In 1953, the commission submitted their report, which recommended categorizing existing Indian car companies according to their manufacturing infrastructure, with licensed capacity to manufacture a certain number of vehicles, with capacity increases allowable, as per demands, in the future. The Tariff Commission recommendations were implemented with new policies that would eventually exclude companies that only imported parts for assembly, as well as those with no Indian partner. In 1954, following the Tariff Commission implementation, General MotorsFord, and Rootes Group, which had assembly-only plants in Mumbai, decided to move out of India.[3]

The Tariff commission policies, including similar restrictions that applied to other industries, came to be known as the Licence Raj, which proved to be the greatest undoing of the Indian automotive industry, where bureaucratic red tape ended up causing demand to outstrip supply, with month-long waiting periods for cars, scooters, and motorcycles.

Passenger Cars
Utility and Light Commercial Vehicles
Medium and Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Matang truck manufactured by the Vehicle Factory Jabalpur of OFB

Bhishma Tank manufactured at the Heavy Vehicles Factory, Chennai of the OFB

Scooters, Mopeds and Motorcycles

The Vespa 150 Sprint, known as Bajaj Chetak, by Bajaj became the largest sold scooter in the world.

1970 to 1983[edit]

However, growth was relatively slow in the 1950s and 1960s, due to nationalisation and the license raj, which hampered the growth of the Indian private sector.

The beginning of the 1970s saw some growth potential; and most of the collaboration license agreements came to an end, but with the option to continue manufacturing with renewed branding. Cars were still meant for the elite and Jeeps were largely used by government organizations and in some rural regions. By the end of the decade, some developments were made in commercial vehicle segments to facilitate the movement of goods. The two-wheeler segment remained unchanged except for to increased sales to the middle class in urban areas. There was emphasis on having more farm tractors, as India was embarking on a new Green Revolution; and Russian and eastern bloc imports were brought in to meet the demand.

But after 1970, with restrictions on the import of vehicles set, the automotive industry started to grow; but the growth was mainly driven by tractors, commercial vehicles and scooters. Cars still remained a major luxury item. In the 1970s, price controls were finally lifted, inserting a competitive element into the automobile market.[5] However, by the 1980s, the automobile market was still dominated by Hindustan and Premier, who sold superannuated products in fairly limited numbers.[6] The rate of car ownership in 1981 was about one in every thousand citizens – understandable when the annual road tax alone cost about half the average income of an Indian at the time.[7]

During the eighties, a few competitors began to arrive on the scene. Of the 30,487 cars built in India in 1980, all but six came from the two main players Hindustan and Premier: Standard had led a shadow existence in the latter half of the 1970s, producing only a handful of cars to keep their license active.[7] A new contender was tiny Sipani, who had tried building locally developed three-wheeled vehicles since 1975 but introduced the Reliant Kitten-based Dolphin in 1982. Nonetheless, all eyes were on Sanjay Gandhi‘s Maruti project, which was destined to cause major upheaval to the Indian automobile industry.[7]

The OPEC oil crisis saw increase need to installing or redesign some vehicle to fit diesel engines on medium commercial vehicle. Until the early 1970s Mahindra Jeeps were on Petrol and Premier commercial vehicles had Petrol model options. The Defence sector too had most trucks on Petrol engines.

1984 to 1992[edit]

First generation Maruti 800 launched in 1984

Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Reconnaissance Vehicle (CBRN-RV) manufactured by the Ordnance Factory Medak of OFB

From the end of the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s India saw no new models, the country continuing to depend on two decades-old designs. The Sipani Dolphin, which arrived in 1982, was not a serious contender, with its plastic body and without rear doors – essential to Indian car buyers. This situation forced the government to encourage and let more manufacturers into fray.

In 1984, the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi established the Ordnance Factory Medak, near Hyderabad. It started manufacturing Infantry Combat Vehicles christened as Sarath, the backbone of India’s mechanised infantry. OFMK is still the only manufacturing facility of ICVs in India. To manufacture the high-power engines used in ICVs and main battle tanks, Engine Factory Avadi, near Chennai was set in 1987. In 1986, to promote the auto industry, the government established the Delhi Auto Expo. The 1986 Expo was a showcase for how the Indian automotive industry was absorbing new technologies, promoting indigenous research and development, and adapting these technologies for the rugged conditions of India. The nine-day show was attended by then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.

Post-1992 liberalisation[edit]

Tata Indica, launched in 1998

The Mahindra Scorpio was launched in 2002.

The Maruti Suzuki Dzire and its hatchback version, the Suzuki Swift are the best selling cars in recent years in India.

Eventually multinational automakers, such as, Suzuki and Toyota of Japan and Hyundai of South Korea, were allowed to invest in the Indian market, furthering the establishment of an automotive industry in India. Maruti Suzuki was the first, and the most successful of these new entries, and in part the result of government policies to promote the automotive industry beginning in the 1980s.[6] As India began to liberalise its automobile market in 1991, a number of foreign firms also initiated joint ventures with existing Indian companies. The variety of options available to the consumer began to multiply in the nineties, whereas before there had usually only been one option in each price class. By 2000, there were 12 large automotive companies in the Indian market, most of them offshoots of global companies.[8]

Slow export growth[edit]

Exports were slow to grow. Sales of small numbers of vehicles to tertiary markets and neighbouring countries began early, and in 1987 Maruti Suzuki shipped 480 cars to Europe (Hungary). After some growth in the mid-nineties, exports once again began to drop as the outmoded platforms provided to Indian manufacturers by multinationals were not competitive.[9] This was not to last, and today India manufactures low-priced cars for markets across the globe. As of 18 March 2013, global brands such as Proton HoldingsPSA GroupKiaMazdaChryslerDodge and Geely Holding Group were shelving plans for India due to the competitiveness of the market, as well as the global economic crisis.[10]

Emission norms[edit]

In 2000, in line with international standards to reduce vehicular pollution, the central government unveiled standards titled “India 2000”, with later, upgraded guidelines to be known as Bharat Stage emission standards. These standards are quite similar to the stringent European emission standards and have been implemented in a phased manner.

Bharat Stage IV (BS-IV), the most stringent so far, was implemented first, in April 2010, in 13 cities—Delhi (NCR), MumbaiKolkataChennaiBangaloreHyderabadAhmedabadPuneSuratKanpurLucknowSolapur, and Agra—and then, as of April 2017, the rest of the nation.

In 2019, in line with international standards to reduce vehicular pollution, the central government of India announced the introduction of BS-VI norms to control air pollution, taking effect from 1 April 2020.[11]

Local manufacture encouraged[edit]

India levies an import tax of 125% on foreign imported cars, while the import tax on components such as gearboxes, airbags, drive axles, is 10%. Therefore, the taxes encourage cars to be assembled in India rather than be imported as completely built units.[12]


As of 2019, India is the 4th largest automobile market in the world, surpassing Germany in terms of sales.[13]

Manufacturing facilities[edit]

The majority of India’s car manufacturing industry is evenly divided into three “clusters”. Around Chennai is the southernmost and largest, with a 35% revenue share, accounting for 60% of the country’s automotive exports, and home of the operations of Heavy Vehicles Factory, Engine Factory Avadi, FordHyundaiRenaultMitsubishiNissanBMWHindustan MotorsDaimlerCaparoMiniCitroën and Datsun.[14][15]

Near MumbaiMaharashtra, along the Chakan corridor near Pune, is the western cluster, with a 33% share of the market. AudiVolkswagen, and Škoda are located in AurangabadMahindra and Mahindra has an SUV and engine assembly plant at NashikGeneral MotorsTata MotorsMercedes BenzLand RoverJaguarFiat, and Force Motors have assembly plants in the area.[16][17]

The northern cluster is around the National Capital Region, and contributes 32%. Gurgaon and Manesar, in Haryana, are where the country’s largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based.

An emerging cluster is the state of Gujarat, with a manufacturing facility of MG Motors in HalolAtul Auto in Rajkot, Ford, Oculus Auto in Sabarkantha,[18] Maruti Suzuki, and Peugeot-Citroën plants are also planned for Gujarat.[19]

Kolkata with Hindustan Motors (inactive), Noida with Honda, and Bengaluru with ToyotaVolvo and Scania and Andhra with Isuzu and Kia are other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.[20][21][22]

Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Commercial and passenger vehicles
Two wheelers
Off-highway vehicles

Reva electric car sold as G-Wiz in the UK


Passenger vehicles
Two wheelers
Commercial vehicles
Electric Vehicles
  • Oculus Auto – Sabarkantha, Gujarat[18]


Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles
Agricultural Vehicles

Himachal Pradesh[edit]

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles


Commercial vehicles


Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

A TVS Rickshaw in Chennai: India is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of three-wheel vehicles.

Hero Honda CBZ, one of the popular models

A Volvo bus

State Transport Corporation are the largest buyers for Buses in India.

India is the world’s largest Tractor manufacturer by volume.

Mahindra 3616 Four Wheel Drive sold in the US

L&T 752 Road Roller 2015


Commercial vehicles

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Two wheelers
Commercial vehicles


Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles


Commercial vehicles


Two Wheelers

Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India – Tapukara[25] Hero Motocorp;Neemrana

Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles

T-90S Bhishma Tank‘s engine manufactured by Engine Factory Avadi, Chennai


Commercial vehicles

Uttar Pradesh[edit]

Two wheelers
Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles


Commercial vehicles
Two wheelers

West Bengal[edit]

Passenger vehicles
Commercial vehicles


2007 Mahindra Scorpio in service with Italy‘s CNSAS

India’s automobile exports have grown consistently and reached $4.5 billion in 2009, with the United Kingdom being India’s largest export market, followed by ItalyGermany, the Netherlands, and South Africa.[83]

According to The New York Times, India’s strong engineering base and expertise in the manufacturing of low-cost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the expansion of manufacturing facilities of several automobile companies like HyundaiNissanToyotaVolkswagen, and Maruti Suzuki.[84]

In 2008, South Korean multinational Hyundai Motors alone exported 240,000 cars made in India. Nissan Motors planned to export 250,000 vehicles manufactured in its India plant by 2011.[85] Similarly, US automobile company, General Motors had announced its plans to export about 50,000 cars manufactured in India by 2011.[86]

In September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to set up a plant in India with an annual capacity of 250,000 cars, for US$500 million. The cars were manufactured both for the Indian market and for export.[87] The company said that the plant was a part of its plan to make India the hub for its global production business.[88] Fiat Motors had announced that it would source more than US$1 billion worth auto components from India.[89]

Tata Safari on display in PoznańPoland

In 2009, India (0.23m) surpassed China (0.16m) as Asia’s fourth largest exporter of cars after Japan (1.77m), Korea (1.12m) and Thailand (0.26m).[90]

In July 2010, The Economic Times reported that PSA Peugeot Citroën was planning to re-enter the Indian market and open a production plant in Andhra Pradesh that would have an annual capacity of 100,000 vehicles, investing €700M in the operation.[91] PSA’s intention to utilise this production facility for export purposes however remains unclear as of December 2010.

The Maruti Ertiga, a model exported by Maruti Suzuki, India

In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of small cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more than 250,000 cars annually from India. Apart from Maruti Exports‘ shipments to Suzuki‘s other markets, Maruti Suzuki also manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells them in Europe. Nissan will also export small cars from its new Indian assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian and African markets, and is preparing to sell electric cars in Europe in 2010. The firm is planning to sell an electric version of its affordable car the Tata Nano in Europe and in the U.S. In the 2000s, Mahindra & Mahindra prepared to introduce its pickup trucks and small SUV models in the U.S. market, but canceled its plans. As of 2019, it is assembling and selling an off-road vehicle (Mahindra Roxor; not certified for road use) in limited numbers in the U.S.[92] It is also sold in Canada. Bajaj Auto is designing a low-cost car for Renault Nissan Automotive India, which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join domestic commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small car project.[93] While the possibilities for the Indian automobile industry are impressive, there are challenges that could thwart future growth. Since the demand for automobiles in recent years is directly linked to overall economic expansion and rising personal incomes, industry growth will slow if the economy weakens.[93]

Top 10 export destinations[edit]

India exported $14.5 billion worth of automobiles in 2014. The 10 countries below imported 47.8% of that total.[94]

RankCountryValue (US$)Share
1United States1.2 billion8.4%
2Mexico$1 billion6.9%
3South Africa$888.8 million6.1%
4United Kingdom$637.4 million4.4%
5Sri Lanka$596.9 million4.1%
6Bangladesh$592.1 million4.1%
7Turkey$580.4 million4%
8Nigeria$546.8 million3.8%
9United Arab Emirates$433.6 million3%
10Colombia$428.9 million3%

Passenger vehicles in India[edit]

India is the 4th largest passenger vehicle producer in the world. In 2018–19, it produced 4.06 million Cars.[95] Currently, there an estimated 30 million cars in India.[96]

This list is of cars that are officially available and serviced in India. While other cars can be imported to the country at a steep 105% import duty, car-makers such as Alfa Romeo,[97] McLaren,[98] Pagani,[99] Cadillac,[100] SSC,[101] Zenvo,[102] SEAT,[103] Smart,[104] Daihatsu,[105] Infiniti,[106] Acura,[107] Spyker,[108] Lotus,[109] Ariel,[110] Caterham,[111] Peugeot-Citroën,[112] Mazda,[113] GAZ,[114] and Proton[115] are in various stages of official introduction into the Indian automobile industry.

Indian automotive companies[edit]

Models currently manufactured by Indian companies[edit]

Maruti Swift in India. Maruti Suzuki is a subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan.

Mahindra XUV500, one of India’s best selling indigenously developed SUV

Defunct Indian automotive companies[edit]

Foreign automotive companies in India[edit]

MG, Hyundai, Renault, Nissan, Datsun, Mitsubishi, Citroën, Ford, Fiat, Honda, Toyota, KIA, Volkswagen, Skoda, Audi, Jaguar, Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz, BMW and MINI are the foreign automotive companies that manufacture and market their products in India.

Vehicles currently manufactured in India[edit]

Manufactured only in Chennai, India, the i10 is one of Hyundai’s best selling globally exported cars.

Ford EcoSport subcompact crossovers for most world markets are assembled in the Chennai plant. The Ford EcoSport is the only mainstream vehicle exported to the United States that is assembled in India.

Opel was present in India until 2006. As of 2013, Opel only provides spare parts and vehicle servicing to existing Opel vehicle owners.

General Motors India stopped producing passenger cars for the Indian market in late 2017. It however continues to produce vehicles for export to other markets.

2019 passenger car sales data[142]
RankOEM2019 salesShare2018 salesShare
1Maruti SuzukiDecrease 1,485,943Decrease 50.6%1,731,17951.7%
2HyundaiDecrease 510,260Increase 17.4%550,00216.4%
3MahindraDecrease 219,663Increase 7.5%232,1816.9%
4Tata MotorsDecrease 152,944Decrease 5.2%213,6256.4%
5HondaDecrease 134,741Decrease 4.6%174,8805.2%
6ToyotaDecrease 126,701Decrease 4.3%151,4804.5%
7RenaultIncrease 88,869Increase 3.0%82,3682.5%
8FordDecrease 73,636Decrease 2.5%97,8042.9%
9KiaIncrease 45,494Increase 1.5%00.0%
10VolkswagenDecrease 32,324Decrease 1.1%37,0291.1%
11Nissan-DatsunDecrease 23,580Decrease 0.8%41,5831.2%
12MG MotorIncrease 15,930Increase 0.5%00.0%
13ŠkodaDecrease 15,284Steady 0.5%16,6920.5%
14Fiat ChryslerDecrease 11,238Decrease 0.4%19,0300.6%
2019 best selling cars in India
RankModel2019 sales2018 sales
1Maruti Suzuki Alto208,087256,661
2Maruti Suzuki Dzire198,904264,612
3Maruti Suzuki Swift191,901223,630
4Maruti Suzuki Baleno183,862210,236
5Maruti Suzuki Wagon R155,967152,020
6Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza127,094155,466
7Hyundai Elite i20123,201141,104
8Maruti Suzuki Eeco114,10584,565
9Hyundai Grand i10102,693134,249
10Hyundai Creta99,736120,905
11Maruti Suzuki Ertiga93,08156,408
12Maruti Suzuki Celerio70,930100,957
13Hyundai Venue70,4430
14Mahindra Bolero69,65685,464
15Honda Amaze67,71567,584
16Hyundai Santro64,72924,741
17Tata Tiago63,21592,286
18Toyota Innova Crysta61,74378,130
19Renault Kwid53,43866,815
20Tata Nexon49,31252,519

Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India[edit]

Indian brands[edit]

Joint-venture (JV) brands[edit]

Foreign-owned brands[edit]

Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry[edit]

During April 2012, the Indian government planned to unveil the road map for the development of domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country.[166] A discussion between the various stakeholders, including Government, industry, and academia, was expected to take place during 23–24 February.[166] The final contours of the policy would have been formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport, and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries, auto industry executives, such as Anand Mahindra (Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Mahindra & Mahindra) and Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-Chairman, Toyota Kirloskar), were involved in this task.[166] The Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore research and development fund for the sector in the 12th five-year plan during 2012–17.[166] The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor, and to develop such capabilities locally. In the year 2017, An AmaravatiAndhra Pradesh based Electric Vehicles manufacturing company called AVERA[167] New & Renewable Energy started electric scooters manufacturing[168] and are ready to launch their two models of scooters by the end of December 2018.[169]

Electric cars are seen as economical long-term investments, as one doesn’t need to purchase gas, but needs only to recharge the battery, using renewable energy sources. According to the United States Department of Energy, electric cars produce half as much CO2 emissions as compared to a gas-powered car.[170] According to The Economic Times, 60% of Indian customers expect fuel prices to go up in the next 12 months and 58% expect to buy a new car in the same time frame. Most consumers are looking to buy a car which gives good mileage. According to the same source, 68% of Asian drivers expect higher mileage from their cars due to the higher fuel prices. This has encouraged 38% of Indian automobile consumers to switch to electric or hybrid cars.[171] Due to this change in the market, many companies, such as Toyota, have planned to introduce electric vehicles in India; and Suzuki has tested almost 50 electric prototypes in India already, according to Mashable.In 2019 Hyundai Launched India’s First Electric Car Kona Electric .[172]

Electric vehicle manufacturers in India[edit]

Driverless Technology in India[edit]

While there is controversy on possibility of driverless cars in India,[178][179] many startups are working on this technology:

  • Flux Auto
  • FishEyeBox
  • Hi Tech Robotic Systemz
  • EC Mobility Pvt. Ltd.
  • ATImotors
  • Netradyne
  • Swaayat Robots
  • Auro Robotics
  • OmniPresent Robotics
  • SeDrica 1.0[180]

In Auto Expo 2018, Hi Tech Robotic Systemz launched an artificial intelligence-based driver behaviour sensor technology called Novus Aware in partnership with Daimler India Commercial Vehicles (DICV).[181][182]

Defunct motor vehicle manufacturers of India[edit]

  • Automobile Products of India or API – founded in 1949 at Bombay (now Mumbai), by the British company Rootes Group,[183] and later bought by M. A. Chidambaram of the MAC Group from Madras (now Chennai).[183] The company manufactured Lambretta scooters, API Three Wheelers under licence from Innocenti of Italy and automobile ancillaries, notably clutch and braking systems. API’s registered offices were earlier in Mumbai, later shifted to Chennai, in Tamil Nadu. The manufacturing facilities were located in Mumbai and Aurangabad in Maharashtra and in AmbatturChennai.[184] The company has not been operational since 2002.
  • Escorts Yamaha – in 1984 Escorts formed a joint venture with Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles. In 2008 became India Yamaha Motor.
  • Hero Motors is a former moped and scooter manufacturer based in Delhi, India. It is a part of multinational company Hero Group, which also currently owns Hero Motocorp (formerly Hero Honda) and Hero Cycles, among others. Hero Motors was started in the 1960s to manufacture 50cc two-stroke mopeds but gradually diversified into making larger mopeds, mokicks and scooters in the 1980s and the 1990s. Noteworthy collaborators and technical partners were Puch of Austria and Malaguti of Italy. Due to tightening emission regulations and poor sales, Hero motors have discontinued the manufacture of all gasoline powered vehicles and transformed itself into an electric two-wheeler and auto parts manufacturer.
  • Ideal Jawa – motorcycle company based in Mysore, sold licensed Jawa and ČZ motorcycles beginning in 1960 under the brand name Jawa and later Yezdi.
  • Kinetic Honda – a joint venture between Kinetic Engineering Limited, India and Honda Motor Company, Japan. The joint venture operated during 1984 – 1998, manufacturing 2-stroke scooters in India. In 1998, the joint venture was terminated after which Kinetic Engineering continued to sell the models under the brand name Kinetic until 2008[185] when the interests were sold to Mahindra.
  • Mopeds India Limited – produces the Suvega range of Mopeds under technical collaboration with Motobécane of France.
  • Standard – produced by Standard Motor Products in Madras from 1949 to 1988. Indian Standards were variations of vehicles made in the U.K. by StandardTriumph.Standard Motor Products of India Ltd. (SMPI) was incorporated in 1948,[186] and their first product was the Vanguard, which began to be assembled in 1949. The company was dissolved in 2006 and the old plant torn down.

Automotive Research Association of India – Standards[edit]

The Government of India felt the need for a permanent agency to expedite the publication of standards and development of test facilities[187] in parallel with the work of the preparation of the standards – as the development of improved safety critical parts could be undertaken only after the publication of the standard and commissioning of test facilities. The Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) constituted a permanent Automotive Industry Standards Committee (AISC) . The Standards prepared by AISC will be approved by the permanent CMVR Technical Standing Committee (CTSC). After approval, the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)[188] will publish this standard.

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are globally proven systems to optimize the utilization of existing transport infrastructure and improve transportation systems in terms of efficiency, quality, comfort and safety. Having realized the potential of ITS, Government bodies and other organizations in India are presently working towards implementing various components of ITS across the country.

The first step taken for creation and implementation of ITS was holding a National Workshop titled “User Requirements for Interactive ITS Architecture”,[189] which was conducted as a collaboration between SIAM and ASRTU on 26 & 27 February 2015. This was primarily focused on ITS in Public Bus Transportation. Nonetheless, the workshop helped to create the outline for “National Intelligent Transport System Architecture and Policy for Public Transport (Bus)”, which was submitted by ASRTU and SIAM to the government

In the 44th & 45th CMVR-TSC, Chairman had directed – standardization activities to be initiated on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) – Vehicle Location TrackingCamera Surveillance System and Emergency Request Button. The committee intended to extend the above user requirements to all public transportation namely –buses, taxis, etc. The current document covers the requirements for Vehicle Location Tracking and Emergency Button. The other ITS components like PIS, CCTV system, Fare collection etc. are deliberated and would be addressed in later phase and could be added as separate parts to the current document..

Based on these directions, the AISC Panel on ITS has prepared this AIS-140 titled,”Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) – Requirements for Public Transport Vehicle Operation”. The panel also deliberated and identified the necessary elements for an effective implementation of vehicle level ITS system.

For AIS-140 Devices, in India, connectivity to report location, and Emergency Panic Button signal is though wireless cellular connectivity. There are device focused Cellular Connectivity Offerings like ‘eSIM4Things[190]‘ available in India, which cater to connectivity requirements of AIS-140 devices.[191] eSIM4Things[190] is fully compatible with all AIS-140 devices and with a connectivity manager and a range of tariff plans.