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Varanasi is a North Indian city on the banks of the Ganges in Uttar Pradesh. Situated about 380 kilometres south-east of the state capital Lucknow, and 121 kilometres east of Allahabad, Varanasi is touted as the spiritual capital of India. It is not only one of the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, but also played a crucial role in the development of Buddhism.

Varanasi is a district in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, with Varanasi city as the district headquarters. It is also called Kashi. According to Hindu mythology, it is one of the sacred places of pilgrimage for Hindus as well as Buddhists. It is believed that Lord Shiva along with Parvathi as Vishwanatha and Vishalaakshi reside there to bless devotees. It is surrounded by Mirzapur district, Jaunpur district, Ghazipur district, Chandauli district, and Bhadohi district. The Ganga (Ganges) river flows through the district. It is considered by Hindus to be a sacred and pure river, having the ability to wash away sins when people take a dip in it. Part of the Varanasi division, the district occupies an area of 1,535 square kilometres (593 sq mi) and as of the 2011 Census of India, it had a population of 3,676,841.
City Infrastructure
Varanasi enjoys smooth connectivity by air, rail, and road. It allows easy access to all parts of the country. Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport is situated 26 kilometres from the city centre. The citys largest train station is Varanasi Cant Railway Station. Udhna Varanasi Express, Kashi Vishwanath Express, Kanpur Varanasi InterCity Express, Sabarmati Express are some of the important express trains that operate from the Varanasi Junction railway station. A number of strategic National Highways, including NH 2, NH 29, NH 56, and the longest National Highway in India, the NH 7, connects the city to various locations in the country. Auto rickshaws, cycle rickshaws, and taxis are readily available as the most popular forms of transport within the city.
Real Estate
The real estate sector of the city was largely beenfitted by the upgradation of the Varanasi airport to the status of an international airport in 2012. There has been a joint effort of the Mayor of Kyoto and Indias Ambassador to Japan to carve a smart heritage city of Varanasi, after the Prime Minister paid a visit to Japan. This initiative will modernize waste management, sewage management, urban transport, and water management which will consequently give a significant boost to the realty scenario of Varanasi. Jaitpura, Khajuri, Sarnath, Shivpur, and Sigra are amongst the sought-after destination for residential property in the city.
Varanasi boasts of several places of interest including the Aghor Peeth, the Alamgir Mosque, the Ashoka Pillar, Bharat Kala Bhawan, Bharat Mata Temple, Durga Temple, Jantar Mantar, Kashi Vishwanath Temple, Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, the New Vishwanath Temple on the BHU campus, the Ramnagar Fort, the Riverfront Ghats, the Tulsi Manas Temple, and few others. The Ghats in Varanasi are world-renowned embankments where pilgrims perform ritual customs, some of which are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, and the Harishchandra Ghat. The 15 mosques in Varanasi also have immense historical value, such as Gyanvapi Mosque, Alamgiri Mosque, Abdul Razzaq, Alamgir, etc. A major centre of arts and culture, this city celebrates festivals such as Mahashivratri, Ramlila of Ramnagar, Nag Nathaiya, Ganga Mahotsav, Ramzan, Bakrid, Muharram, and few others. The city is also a prominent centre of education, with numerous students and scholars flocking here from across the country. Banaras Hindu University is one of the largest residential universities in Asia with over 20,000 students. Other leading educational institutions include the Indian Institute of Technology, BHU, Institute of Integrated Management and Technology, Sri Agrasen Kanya PG College, etc.

According to the 2006 City Development Plan for Varanasi, approximately 29% of Varanasi’s population is employed.[106] Approximately 40% are employed in manufacturing, 26% work in trade and commerce, 19% work in other services, 8% work in transport and communication, 4% work in agriculture, 2% work in construction, and 2% are marginal workers (working for less than half of the year).[107]

Among manufacturing workers, 51% work in spinning and weaving, 15% work in metal, 6% work in printing and publishing, 5% work in electrical machinery, and the rest work in a wide variety of industry sectors.[108] Varanasi’s manufacturing industry is not well developed and is dominated by small-scale industries and household production.[106]

 Localities in Varanasi